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Monday, August 11, 2014


By Mayo Clinic Staff and Posted By Steven Mruma
          Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many cases, death. Both viruses are native to Africa, where sporadic outbreaks have occurred for decades.
Ebola virus and Marburg virus live in animal hosts, and humans can contract the viruses from infected animals. After the initial transmission, the viruses can spread from person to person through contact with body fluids or contaminated needles.
No drug has been approved to treat either virus. People diagnosed with Ebola or Marburg virus receive supportive care and treatment for complications. Scientists are coming closer to developing vaccines for these deadly diseases.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention monitors the United States for conditions such as Ebola infection, and its labs can test for the Ebola virus. Mayo Clinic does not test for the Ebola and Marburg viruses.


Signs and symptoms typically begin abruptly within five to 10 days of infection with Ebola or Marburg virus. Early signs and symptoms include:
  • Fever
  • Severe headache
  • Joint and muscle aches
  • Chills
  • Weakness
Over time, symptoms become increasingly severe and may include:
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea (may be bloody)
  • Red eyes
  • Raised rash
  • Chest pain and cough
  • Stomach pain
  • Severe weight loss
  • Bleeding, usually from the eyes, and bruising (people near death may bleed from other orifices, such as ears, nose and rectum)
  • Internal bleeding


Ebola virus has been found in African monkeys, chimps and other nonhuman primates. A milder strain of Ebola has been discovered in monkeys and pigs in the Philippines. Marburg virus has been found in monkeys, chimps and fruit bats in Africa.

Transmission from animals to humans

Experts suspect that both viruses are transmitted to humans through an infected animal's bodily fluids. Examples include:
  • Blood. Butchering or eating infected animals can spread the viruses. Scientists who have operated on infected animals as part of their research have also contracted the virus.
  • Waste products. Tourists in certain African caves and some underground mine workers have been infected with the Marburg virus, possibly through contact with the feces or urine of infected bats.

Transmission from person to person

Infected people typically don't become contagious until they develop symptoms. Family members are often infected as they care for sick relatives or prepare the dead for burial.
Medical personnel can be infected if they don't use protective gear, such as surgical masks and gloves. Medical centers in Africa are often so poor that they must reuse needles and syringes. Some of the worst Ebola epidemics have occurred because contaminated injection equipment wasn't sterilized between uses.
There's no evidence that Ebola virus or Marburg virus can be spread via insect bites.

Risk factors

For most people, the risk of getting Ebola or Marburg viruses (hemorrhagic fevers) is low. The risk increases if you:
  • Travel to Africa. You're at increased risk if you visit or work in areas where Ebola virus or Marburg virus outbreaks have occurred.
  • Conduct animal research. People are more likely to contract the Ebola or Marburg virus if they conduct animal research with monkeys imported from Africa or the Philippines.
  • Provide medical or personal care. Family members are often infected as they care for sick relatives. Medical personnel also can be infected if they don't use protective gear, such as surgical masks and gloves.
  • Prepare people for burial. The bodies of people who have died of Ebola or Marburg hemorrhagic fever are still contagious. Helping prepare these bodies for burial can increase your risk of developing the disease.


Both Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers lead to death for a high percentage of people who are affected. As the illness progresses, it can cause:
  • Multiple organ failure
  • Severe bleeding
  • Jaundice
  • Delirium
  • Seizures
  • Coma
  • Shock
One reason the viruses are so deadly is that they interfere with the immune system's ability to mount a defense. But scientists don't understand why some people recover from Ebola and Marburg and others don't.
For people who survive, recovery is slow. It may take months to regain weight and strength, and the viruses remain in the body for weeks. People may experience:
  • Hair loss
  • Sensory changes
  • Liver inflammation (hepatitis)
  • Weakness
  • Fatigue
  • Headaches
  • Eye inflammation
  • Testicular inflammation

Preparing for your appointment

The possibility of contracting Ebola or Marburg virus is extremely low unless you've had direct contact with the body fluids of an infected person or animal.
If you think that you or a family member may have been exposed to one of the viruses, call your doctor or go to the nearest emergency room immediately. If you're not referred to an infectious disease specialist, ask to see one.
If you're from the United States and traveling or working abroad, the nearest U.S. Embassy can help you find a doctor. If you're from another country, contact your country's embassy. Be sure to tell your doctor or hospital about your symptoms before your visit so that precautions can be taken to prevent transmission of the virus to others.

What you can do

Before your appointment, to help your doctor find the cause of your symptoms, write a list that answers the following questions:
  • What symptoms do you have? When did they start?
  • Have you recently traveled in Africa? If so, what part?
  • If you were recently in Africa, did you hunt or eat monkeys?
  • Did you recently visit caves or underground mines in Africa?
  • Are you employed in a lab that uses monkeys from Africa or the Philippines in research?

LEARN THIS: How to Start Your Own Business "Reality Checks Before Starting Your Own Business"

       Running your own business is a stressful but good career and life choice. It demands your time and focus. Start by expecting to live your work until it is established so it can get off the ground. There are many different opinions about how to start a business. Read below for some basic ideas and guidelines to get you started.
1. Come up with an idea. You will need an idea for a business before you do anything else. This should be something you are passionate about, since your new business will consume a great deal of your time and money.
  • Come up with business ideas by identifying things people need which no one else currently provides, that isn’t provided in your area, or which you can provide better than anyone else.

2. Consider if it is plausible. Before going too far, think about how plausible your idea is. Is it something that people would actually pay for? Will it turn enough of a profit to be viable? You will also need to be sure that it is possible to implement. While it would be great to have a computer which makes food magically appear out of thin air, this is simply impossible.

Be sure it’s unique. Whatever your idea is, be sure it’s as unique as possible. This will help you eliminate or significantly combat competition, which will make your business more successful. Simply putting a small spin on a currently existing product (making blue Redvines or something like that) is not usually enough to build a business on, so push the envelope!

Make A Business Plan

  1. Determine your cost of operation. You will need a solid business plan to present to any investors and the best place to start would be with determining your basic cost of operations. This will outline and help you determine how much money is needed to produce the product or offer the service you intend to offer or produce. It includes production costs, shipping, taxes, worker’s wages, rent for workspace, etc. 
    • Knowing your cost of operations will be vital to determining if your business will be profitable, since you will need to make more than this baseline in order to remain in business.
  2. Determine your potential market. Be realistic. How many people will realistically use your business? How much will they pay to use your services? If either number is too small in comparison to how much it will cost you to stay in business, then you should reconsider or change your plans.
  3. Determine impediments. You will need to plan ahead for all of the problems which can get in the way of running a business.
    • Evaluate your competition; if their market share or product offering is too strong and stable, then you will have a very hard time breaking into the market. No one will want to buy an equally priced or more expensive version of a perfectly good product or service which already exists.
    • You will also need to explore the associated regulations and laws, especially regarding taxes. You should ask your local state authorities, as well getting information from the IRS.
    • Make sure there are no prohibitive costs, such as equipment which is too expensive to make the business profitable. For example, cars didn’t take off until Ford figured out how to make them cheap by building more efficient equipment.
    • Write up a budget. Once you have a general idea of how much money you have to work with, write up a budget for marketing which indicates how much money you have available to spend on advertising.
    • Create ideas fitting your budget. Once you know how much money you have, research the costs of different types of marketing and come up with ideas which fit those methods and are effective for the price range. If you have a lot of money to spend on marketing, for example, you can consider shooting a commercial. If you have almost none, you’ll want to think about ways to use social media effectively, which is very effective for requiring little money.
    • Plan timing and location of marketing. Once you know what kind of marketing you intend to do, think about the most effective places to advertise and what time of day, month or year are going to work best to reach your target market.
      • Talk with your bank. Talk with a bank with whom you already have a positive relationship. Ask about what kind of business start-up loans they offer and how they can benefit your business. By using a bank you already know, the bank will have easy access to your financial records and will be more confident in investing with you.
      • Get local investors. If the bank loans will not be enough, look into local investors. There may be a local business tycoon or other similarly wealthy person who would have a vested interest in seeing you succeed. Research people in your area who may have the funds and motivation to help you.

Thursday, February 13, 2014

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Saturday, January 11, 2014


Mtaalam wa Mifugo akiwapa chanjo vifaranga.

Mfugaji akiwapa chanjo kuku

Kuku wakienyeji ni rahisi sana kuwafuga tofauti na wakisasa.

Chanjo kama hii mfugaji unaweza kuchanja kwa maelekezo ya wataalam.

Zipo namna nyingi za uchanjaji wa kuku zingine zinahitaji utaalam

    Wakati wa kutayarisha mpango wa kuchanja kuku kwa ajili ya kinga dhidi ya magonjwa, kuna vipengele vikuu sita Ambavyo unatakiwa uvifahamu na kuvizingatia. Vipengele hivyo ni kama ifuatavyo:

1. Vifaranga vinavyoanguliwa kwa pamoja:
 Iwapo una kundi zaidi ya moja la vifaranga wanaoanguliwa,
Weka utaratibu wa chanjo ambao utapunguza uwezekano wa magonjwa kuenea shambani. Hivyo basi,
Hakikisha vifaranga na kuku wote wanapata chanjo kwa pamoja.
2. Umri wa kuchanja kuku:
Kwa kuku ambao wanatarajiwa kutaga mayai au kuwa kuku wazazi, chanjo
nyingi hutolewa si zaidi ya mwezi mmoja kabla ya kuku kuanza kutaga. Pia kuna baadhi ya chanjo ambazo haziruhusiwi kwa kuku wadogo. (Angalia Ratiba).
3. Magonjwa muhimu katika eneo husika:
Ni muhimu sana kuelewa magonjwa ya kuku yaliyopo katika eneo lako kabla ya kuandaa programu ya uchanjaji, hasa kwa yale magonjwa ambayo chanjo zenye
Vimelea hai hutumika. Hivyo basi, sio busara kuanza kutumia chanjo za aina hii katika maeneo ambayo
Ugonjwa huo haujawahi kuripotiwa.
4. Hali ya kiafya ya kuku watakaochanjwa:
 Usiwape chanjo kuku ambao wanaonyesha dalili za kuathirika kwa mfumo wa hewa au wanaonyesha kuwa na minyoo au wadudu wengine. Kwa kuku walio na dalili hizi chanjo zinaweza kuleta madhara na zisifanye kazi.
5. Aina ya kuku watakaochanjwa:
Kuku wanaofugwa kwa ajili ya nyama wanahitaji kinga ya muda mfupi, hivyo basi chanjo moja inaweza kutosha kabla ya kufikia umri wa kuuzwa. Lakini kuku wa mayai na kuku wazazi wanahitaji programu ya chanjo ambayo itawakinga na magonjwa kwa kipindi chote wanapokua na kutaga. (Zingatia Ratiba).
6. Historia ya Magonjwa katika shamba:
Kabla ya kuandaa mpango wa chanjo, lazima ufahamu ni
Magonjwa gani yaliyoenea katika shamba.
a) Kama unataka kuingiza kuku wapya kutoka mahali ambako ugonjwa umeshawahi kutokea,
kuku hao wachanjwe wiki 3 kabla ya kuwaingiza shambani
b) Iwapo utatumia chanjo yenye vimelea hai, hakikisha kwamba magonjwa hayo yameshawahi
kutokea katika shamba husika. Usitumie chanjo hizi katika shamba ambalo ugonjwa huo
haujawahi kutokea au kutambuliwa.
c) Wasiliana na mashamba jirani kufahamu iwapo wanatumia chanjo zenye vimelea hai. Toa taarifa
kwa mamlaka za mifugo iwapo unapanga kutumia chanjo hizo katika eneo lako. Pata ushauri wa daktari.

Mambo muhimu ya kuzingatia:                                                                                         
  •Hakikisha unazingatia kwa makini masharti ya mtengenezaji wa chanjo: jinsi ya kuhifadhi, kutayarisha na njia inayotumika kumchanja kuku. Wakati wote zingatia masharti ya mtengenezaji kuhusu uhifadhi wa chanjo ili isipoteze nguvu.                                                                                                   
 • Fuata ushauri wa daktari wa mifugo unapoandaa programu ya chanjo.                                         
  • Watoa chanjo wapatiwe mafunzo ya jinsi ya kutayarisha na kutoa chanjo                                     
   • Chagua aina ya chanjo kulingana na umri na hali ya kiafya ya kuku.                                           
   • Fanya usafi wa mara kwa mara katika mabanda ili kupunguza wingi wa vimelea kwenye mazingira.
 • Tumia maji ambayo hayajawekwa dawa au kemikali kwa ajili ya kuchanganyia chanjo, k.m. maji ya kisima, mvua, n.k. Maji ya kuchanganyia chanjo yawe na ubaridi, yasiwe moto.                                   
 • Changanya chanjo kabla ya kutumia na iwekwe mbali na kuku.                               
     • Pata ushauri wa daktari wa mifugo kabla ya kuchanja kuku wagonjwa au wale ambao hawako katika muonekano mzuri
• Siku ya chanjo, usiwape kuku maji kwa masaa 3 – 4 ili waweze kunywa maji yaliyowekwa chanjo kwa haraka.                                                                                                                           
 • Zoezi la uchanjaji lifanyike haraka ili kupunguza usumbufu kwa kuku.                                                
 • Tenganisha kuku waliochanjwa na wale ambao hawajachanjwa.                                          
         • Baada ya kuchanjwa, kuku wawekwe kwenye banda linalopitisha hewa vizuri                                                   
 • Baada ya kila zoezi la kuchanja, wafanyakazi wabadilishe mavazi, viatu/buti zisafishwe na kuwekwa dawa, na vifaa vilivyotumika viwekwe dawa ya kuua vimelea.                                                             
   • Fuata utaratibu uliowekwa wa kuharibu/kusafisha vifaa vilivyotumika kuchanja                                    
   • Weka kumbukumbu za uchanjaji vizuri
Mambo ambayo hutakiwi kuyafanya unapochanja

• Kumwaga chanjo ovyo na kuchafua mikono au nguo
• Kuchanganya chanjo za aina mbili au zaidi, isipokuwa pale tu mtengenezaji wa chanjo atakavyoagiza
hivyo, au kwa ushauri wa daktari wa mifugo.
• Kutumia chanjo iliyopita muda wake
• Kutumia chanjo iliyobaki ili itumike kwa kazi ya siku nyingine
• Kuchanja kuku ambao wamepatiwa dawa aina ya antibiotiki.
• Kuchanja zaidi ya chanjo moja kwa wakati, iwapo haikuagizwa hivyo.

Aina ya Chanjo
Umri wa Kuchanja Kuku
Muda kati ya kutoa chanjo
Njia inayotumika kuchanja kuku
Lasota – kwa ajili ya Mdondo/Kideri
Kifaranga wa Siku 3
Rudia baada ya siku 21, baada ya hapo kila baada ya miezi 3
Maji safi yasiyowekwa dawa
Chanjo inayohimili joto - I-2 kwa ajili ya Mdondo/Kideri
Kifaranga wa Siku moja
Rudia baada ya kila miezi 4 kwa kuku wa mayai na wazazi
Tone la chanjo kwenye jicho kwa kila kuku
Hipraviar-B1 - kwa ajili ya
Mdondo/Kideri na Ugonjwa wa Mapafu (Infectious Bronchitis)
Kifaranga wa Siku moja
Rudia baada ya siku 21, baada ya hapo kila baada ya miezi 3
Maji safi yasiyowekwa dawa
VIR-114 – kwa ajili ya Gumboro
Siku 10 au 14
Inaweza kurudiwa Siku ya 17 kwa
wale waliochanjwa wakiwa na Siku
10; na Siku ya 28 kwa wale waliochanjwa wakiwa na Siku 14
Maji safi yasiyowekwa dawa.
Avipro – kwa ajili ya Ndui ya Kuku
Wiki 7 hadi 14
Chanjo moja
Chanja katikati ya ngozi
kwa kutumia utando wa ngozi kwenye bawa
Chanjo ya Mareksi
Kifaranga wa Siku moja
Chanjo moja
Chanja ndani ya tumbo au chini ya ngozi

   Mawasiliano ya Mtaalam 0753226538 kwa msaada zaidi.

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